Technical Insights into CockroachDB

Posted in: DBA Lounge, Open Source, Podcasts, Technical Track

I recently had the pleasure of discussing CockroachDB on the Datascape Podcast with Chris Presley and I wanted to supplement that episode with a bit more technical information about this database.

A Deeper Look at Consensus

CockroachDB uses the Raft consensus algorithm to guarantee data consistency (as long as system clocks are synchronized with NTP and clock offset is bounded), but it does not handle the whole data set in as a single Raft group. Instead, it uses Multi-Raft, and has a group for each range (horizontal scaling is achieved by splitting data into ranges). Each group designates a node as Leaseholder, which is the node that accepts writes and can serve reads. To optimize reads, Raft is bypassed for them (simplifying that is because the Leaseholder is the only node in a group accepting writes, so it has the most up-to-date data).

There are excellent online resources to get more information about consensus and consistency guarantees in CockroachDB and here are some starting points:

Online Schema Changes

Being SQL-based, CockroachDB organizes data into databases, tables, and rows, with tables having a predefined and well-known schema. Since one of the features of this database is horizontal scaling, this means schema changes must be simple to make even in a globally distributed cluster.

CockroachDB derives inspiration for this from Google’s F1 and supports online schema change by allowing multiple versions of a schema to coexist on the cluster at the same time. A very good explanation of this process can be found here.

Locality and Replication Zones

During the podcast, we mentioned Georeplication and even touched on GDPR compliance. The feature that lets you do this is Replication Zones, which also control the number of copies of replicas.  Another compelling use case for this feature is cross-cloud migrations. In this case, you may want to migrate from one cloud provider to another, and CockroachDB lets you achieve this by appropriately configuring the locality of Replication Zones, provisioning nodes on the target provider, and then adjusting the configuration to force all data to reside only on the locality that corresponds to this new provider. An example migration describing this procedure can be found on this post.

Follow the Workload

CockroachDB leverages Leaseholders and Replication Zones (more specifically, the –locality flag) to move active range leases to a node closer to the origin of the majority of the workload automatically when there is high latency between the nodes.

Going back to what we said while discussing consensus, the Leaseholder is the only node in a Raft group that can accept writes and serve reads.  Hence, to ‘move active range leases’ means that when locality is in use, CockroachDB attempts to keep Leaseholders as close to the sources of traffic for ranges as possible.  

Your Stories

Are you using or considering to use CockroachDB in production? If yes, I’d love to read your stories in the comments section!

 

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About the Author

Principal Consultant
Fernando Ipar is a MySQL Principal Consultant who works remotely from his family home in Montevideo, Uruguay. Initially, Fernando began using GNU/Linux in 1998 and MySQL in 2000, and his journey led him to become active in the technical community, contributing and at times leading open source projects as well as founding the Montevideo MySQL Meetup. Before coming to Pythian, he spent seven years at Percona, where he contributed to the Percona Toolkit and TokuMX Toolkit, among other endeavors. Fernando helped scale and troubleshoot the back-ends for businesses of all sizes including financial institutions, telcos, and other IT companies while also supporting their full stack needs.

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