How to deploy a Cockroach DB Cluster in GCP – Part I

Posted in: DBA Lounge, Google Cloud Platform, Technical Track

CockroachDB is a distributed SQL Database that has been gaining popularity in the last years because of its features. It is easy to deploy, with strong consistency, designed for the cloud, it has distributed transactions and easy to scale. Not many SQL Databases have these features today which makes CockroachDB an excellent solution for many workloads. Currently, there are three methods to deploy CDB:

  • CockroachDB Serverless: Fully managed, auto-scale- CockroachDB cluster. Great for starter projects and development.
  • CockroachDB Dedicated: A fully managed, single tenant CockroachDB deployment in a single region or multi-region cloud (AWS or GCP).
  • CockroachDB Self-Hosted:  A full featured, self-managed CockroachDB deployment.

Cockroach Labs provides the managed deployment options for their product, based on different licensing options and the self-hosted solution is licensed by hardware and infrastructure type.

In this article, we will explore the self-hosted solution since it provides complete control of the implementation. We will review and complete all the necessary steps to build a CDB cluster in the Google Cloud Platform with the following requisites:

  • It should be a multi-region cluster
  • It should be able to redirect calls to the node with less latency.
  • It should be able to support an availability zone failure.
  • It should be able to support a region failure.
  • It should be able to scale or descale easily.

 

The process will be divided into three parts:

1 – Creation of the GCP Infrastructure (this one)

2 – Creation and Start of the CDB Cluster

3 – Management and Availability testing

 

GCP Cluster Details:
  • The cluster will consist of 9 nodes.
  • Our cluster will be deployed in three different GCP Regions and it will have nodes in three of the Region´s availability zones. This will guarantee a strong availability.
  • It will have 5 replicas by default.
  • Each Node will have the minimum recommended settings for a Production environment:
    • 4 x vCPU
    • 16GM RAM
    • 600GB of Storage with 2000 IOPS capacity.
    • Ubuntu OS
  • Will use the GCP n2d-standard shape per CocroachDB Labs recommendation.
  • Will use a Load Balancer
  • The cluster will be accessed only from a bastion host for security purposes.
Create Infrastructure

To begin we will need to prepare our GCP project infrastructure. To have all the details of the build I will include all the GCP Cli commands to create the artifacts. There are better ways to automate the creation of this kind of infrastructure, like for example using Terraform.

We will use one private VCP with a subnet for each of the utilized availability zones. Open the GCP console and execute the following statements to create the VCP and the subnets:

gcloud compute networks create private-cdb-cluster-prod --project=cdbblog --description=Multi-region\ VPC\ for\ CDB\ Cluster --subnet-mode=custom --mtu=1460 --bgp-routing-mode=regional
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-us-central1-a --project=cdbblog --range=10.14.1.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=us-central1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-us-central1-b --project=cdbblog --range=10.14.2.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=us-central1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-us-central1-c --project=cdbblog --range=10.14.3.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=us-central1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-europe-southwest1-a --project=cdbblog --range=10.20.1.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=europe-southwest1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-europe-southwest1-b --project=cdbblog --range=10.20.2.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=europe-southwest1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-europe-southwest1-c --project=cdbblog --range=10.20.3.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=europe-southwest1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-southamerica-east1-a --project=cdbblog --range=10.50.1.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=southamerica-east1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-southamerica-east1-b --project=cdbblog --range=10.50.2.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=southamerica-east1 --enable-private-ip-google-access
gcloud compute networks subnets create private-southamerica-east1-c --project=cdbblog --range=10.50.3.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --region=southamerica-east1 --enable-private-ip-google-access

Now, lets create a Public VPC for the Bastion Host:

gcloud compute networks create public-cdb-cluster-prod --project=cdbblog --description=Multi-region\ VPC\ for\ CDB\ Cluster\ -\ Public\ VPC --subnet-mode=custom --mtu=1460 --bgp-routing-mode=regional
gcloud compute networks subnets create public-us-central1 --project=cdbblog --range=10.30.1.0/24 --stack-type=IPV4_ONLY --network=public-cdb-cluster-prod --region=us-central1 --enable-private-ip-google-access

To be able to communicate between the subnets we need to create a VPC Peering:

gcloud compute networks peerings create cdb-vpc-peering1 --network=public-cdb-cluster-prod --peer-project cdbblog --peer-network private-cdb-cluster-prod --export-subnet-routes-with-public-ip
gcloud compute networks peerings create cdb-vpc-peering2 --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --peer-project cdbblog --peer-network public-cdb-cluster-prod --export-subnet-routes-with-public-ip

And we need to create firewalls to make connections between the subnets:

gcloud compute firewall-rules create cdb-cluster-prod-multiregion-allow-custom --project=cdbblog --network=projects/cdb/global/networks/private-cdb-cluster-prod --description=Allows\ connection\ from\ any\ source\ to\ any\ instance\ on\ the\ network\ using\ custom\ protocols. --direction=INGRESS --priority=65534 --source-ranges=10.30.1.0/24,10.14.1.0/24,10.14.2.0/24,10.14.3.0/24,10.20.1.0/24,10.20.2.0/24,10.20.3.0/24,10.50.1.0/24,10.50.2.0/24,10.50.3.0/24 --action=ALLOW --rules=all
gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-access-from-iap --project=cdbblog --network=projects/cdb/global/networks/private-cdb-cluster-prod --description=Allows\ connection\ from\ IAP. --direction=INGRESS --priority=65534 --source-ranges=35.235.240.0/20  --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:22
gcloud compute firewall-rules create public-cdb-cluster-prod-allow-custom --project=cdbblog --network=projects/cdb/global/networks/public-cdb-cluster-prod --description=Allows\ connection\ from\ any\ source\ to\ any\ instance\ on\ the\ network\ using\ custom\ protocols. --direction=INGRESS --priority=65534 --source-ranges=10.30.1.0/24,10.14.1.0/24,10.14.2.0/24,10.14.3.0/24,10.20.1.0/24,10.20.2.0/24,10.20.3.0/24,10.50.1.0/24,10.50.2.0/24,10.50.3.0/24 --action=ALLOW --rules=all
gcloud compute firewall-rules create public-cdb-cluster-prod-allow-icmp --project=cdbblog --network=projects/cdb/global/networks/public-cdb-cluster-prod --description=Allows\ ICMP\ connections\ from\ any\ source\ to\ any\ instance\ on\ the\ network. --direction=INGRESS --priority=65534 --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0 --action=ALLOW --rules=icmp
gcloud compute firewall-rules create public-cdb-cluster-prod-allow-rdp --project=cdbblog --network=projects/cdb/global/networks/public-cdb-cluster-prod --description=Allows\ RDP\ connections\ from\ any\ source\ to\ any\ instance\ on\ the\ network\ using\ port\ 3389. --direction=INGRESS --priority=65534 --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0 --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:3389
gcloud compute firewall-rules create public-cdb-cluster-prod-allow-ssh --project=cdbblog --network=projects/cdb/global/networks/public-cdb-cluster-prod --description=Allows\ TCP\ connections\ from\ any\ source\ to\ any\ instance\ on\ the\ network\ using\ port\ 22. --direction=INGRESS --priority=65534 --source-ranges=0.0.0.0/0 --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:22

To provide secure Internet access to the private subnets we need to create a Cloud Nat. One for each of the regions with the cloud router also:

gcloud compute routers create cdb-cluster-nat-router-us --project=cdbblog --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --asn=65001  --region=us-central1
gcloud compute routers create cdb-cluster-nat-router-europe --project=cdbblog --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --asn=65001  --region=europe-southwest1
gcloud compute routers create cdb-cluster-nat-router-sa --project=cdbblog --network=private-cdb-cluster-prod --asn=65001  --region=southamerica-east1
gcloud compute routers nats create cdb-nat-us --project=cdbblog --router=cdb-cluster-nat-router-us --region=us-central1 --auto-allocate-nat-external-ips --nat-all-subnet-ip-ranges --enable-logging
gcloud compute routers nats create cdb-nat-europe --project=cdbblog --router=cdb-cluster-nat-router-europe --region=europe-southwest1 --auto-allocate-nat-external-ips --nat-all-subnet-ip-ranges --enable-logging
gcloud compute routers nats create cdb-nat-sa --project=cdbblog --router=cdb-cluster-nat-router-sa --region=southamerica-east1 --auto-allocate-nat-external-ips --nat-all-subnet-ip-ranges --enable-logging

Like we mentioned before, we will use a Bastion Host to connect to each of the cluster nodes. Let’s create one with the following command under the Public VPC:

gcloud compute instances create cdb-bastion --project=cdbblog --zone=us-central1-b --machine-type=n2d-standard-2 --network-interface=network-tier=PREMIUM,subnet=public-us-central1 --maintenance-policy=MIGRATE --provisioning-model=STANDARD [email protected].com --scopes=https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.read_only,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/monitoring.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/servicecontrol,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/service.management.readonly,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/trace.append --tags=public,bastion --create-disk=auto-delete=yes,boot=yes,device-name=cdb-bastion,image=projects/ubuntu-os-cloud/global/images/ubuntu-1804-bionic-v20221005,mode=rw,size=20,type=projects/cdbblog/zones/us-central1-b/diskTypes/pd-balanced --no-shielded-secure-boot --shielded-vtpm --shielded-integrity-monitoring --reservation-affinity=any

And create the first CDB Cluster node. It will have three additional storage disks. One for the CDB binaries, one for the logs and one SSD for the data.

gcloud compute instances create cdb-cluster-node1 --project=cdbblog --zone=us-central1-a --machine-type=n2d-standard-4 --network-interface=subnet=private-us-central1-a,no-address --maintenance-policy=MIGRATE --provisioning-model=STANDARD [email protected].com --scopes=https://www.googleapis.com/auth/devstorage.read_only,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/monitoring.write,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/servicecontrol,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/service.management.readonly,https://www.googleapis.com/auth/trace.append --tags=cdb,private --create-disk=auto-delete=yes,boot=yes,device-name=cdb-cluster-node1,image=projects/ubuntu-os-cloud/global/images/ubuntu-1804-bionic-v20221005,mode=rw,size=20,type=projects/cdbblog/zones/us-central1-a/diskTypes/pd-balanced --create-disk=description=Disk\ for\ Binaries,device-name=cdb,mode=rw,name=cdb,size=50,type=projects/cdbblog/zones/us-central1-a/diskTypes/pd-balanced --create-disk=description=Disk\ for\ Logs,device-name=cdb-logs,mode=rw,name=cdb-logs,size=10,type=projects/cdbblog/zones/us-central1-a/diskTypes/pd-balanced --create-disk=device-name=cdb-data,mode=rw,name=cdb-data,size=600,type=projects/cdbblog/zones/us-central1-a/diskTypes/pd-ssd --no-shielded-secure-boot --shielded-vtpm --shielded-integrity-monitoring --reservation-affinity=any

 

Configure the Servers

With the bastion host and the first cluster node created, we can go ahead and configure the first node.

We use gcloud compute ssh to connect to the node from the bastion host:

[email protected]:~$ sudo su -
[email protected]:~# gcloud auth login
[email protected]:~# gcloud compute ssh cdb-cluster-node1 --project=cdbblog --zone=us-central1-a

Format and mount the disks:

mkfs.ext4 -m 0 -E lazy_itable_init=0,lazy_journal_init=0,discard /dev/sdb
mkfs.ext4 -m 0 -E lazy_itable_init=0,lazy_journal_init=0,discard /dev/sdc
mkfs.ext4 -m 0 -E lazy_itable_init=0,lazy_journal_init=0,discard /dev/sdd

mkdir /cdb
mkdir /cdb_logs
mkdir /cdb_data

mount -o discard,defaults /dev/sdb /cdb
mount -o discard,defaults /dev/sdc /cdb_logs
mount -o discard,defaults /dev/sdd /cdb_data

[email protected]:~# df -h | grep cdb
/dev/sdb         49G   24K   49G   1% /cdb
/dev/sdc        9.8G   24K  9.8G   1% /cdb_logs
/dev/sdd         98G   24K   98G   1% /cdb_data

Add the disks details for the /etc/fstab file:

[email protected]:~# cat /etc/fstab
LABEL=cloudimg-rootfs   /        ext4   defaults        0 1
LABEL=UEFI      /boot/efi       vfat    umask=0077      0 1
UUID=96c77a05-23e0-4fdd-af8e-2e1b83219b6e /cdb ext4   defaults        0 1
UUID=77ab43d0-f299-4308-a6fc-b3e0bcbf2a04 /cdb_logs ext4   defaults        0 1
UUID=effe547d-ed0a-4244-8a57-bc586cc10b54 /cdb_data ext4   defaults        0 1

Install the Cockroach DB Binaries:

[email protected]:/cdb# curl https://binaries.cockroachdb.com/cockroach-v22.1.8.linux-amd64.tgz | tar -xz && sudo cp -i cockroach-v22.1.8.linux-amd64/cockroach /usr/local/bin/
  % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
100 83.6M  100 83.6M    0     0  31.9M      0  0:00:02  0:00:02 --:--:-- 31.9M
[email protected]:/cdb#

[email protected]:/cdb# cockroach version
Build Tag:        v22.1.8
Build Time:       2022/09/29 14:21:51
Distribution:     CCL
Platform:         linux amd64 (x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)
Go Version:       go1.17.11
C Compiler:       gcc 6.5.0
Build Commit ID:  bdcab67f778617515597f1012f37f14f622b15a0
Build Type:       release
[email protected]:/cdb#

Create the certificates to make secure connections:

[email protected]:/cdb# mkdir certs
[email protected]:/cdb# mkdir my-safe-directory
[email protected]:/cdb# cockroach cert create-ca --certs-dir=certs --ca-key=my-safe-directory/ca.key

Now that we have the first node configured with the CDB installed, we will create a Machine Image. From this image we will create all the other nodes for the cluster. Go back to the GCP console and execute:

gcloud beta compute machine-images create cdb-cluster-node-image --project=cdbblog --source-instance=cdb-cluster-node1 --source-instance-zone=us-central1-a --storage-location=us

We have covered most of the infrastructure creation for the cluster. In the next part we will cover the creation of the rest of nodes, the creation of the Load Balancer and we will start the cluster.

 

References:

CDB Recommended Production Settings

CDB in GCP

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