Oracle Database and Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)

Posted in: Oracle, Technical Track


A common question from Oracle customers is whether they can configure the Oracle Database to use:

  • Two-Factor Authentication (2FA)
  • Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA)
  • A “Time-based One-time Password” (TOTP) code, which is usually a six-digit code generated from a hardware or software application.

The short answer is, yes!(though, not natively). You can implement it through other directory service technologies, namely RADIUS.

Previous blog posts discussed the setup and testing of the new Oracle 18c+ feature of Oracle “Centrally Managed Users” (CMU). It allows you to manage Oracle database users through Microsoft Active Directory (AD), and effectively offloads user management to AD. Oracle RADIUS authentication isn’t part of CMU. It’s a similar but slightly different implementation, and each has its own benefits and limitations.

However, by leveraging Oracle’s compatibility with the RADIUS protocol and an external directory service, you can achieve true 2FA capabilities for the Oracle database (and on a per-user basis, meaning that application and/or service accounts remain unaffected).

This post describes how to implement Oracle database 2FA using FreeRADIUS. The subsequent post extends the setup to use the commercially available Cisco Duo platform instead.

RADIUS Quick Summary

The RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-in Service) protocol is based on “AAA:” Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. This post is based mainly on the Authentication part. Furthermore, RADIUS can operate in two modes: synchronous mode and challenge-response (asynchronous) mode. Oracle Database is actually capable of both (and has been since at least Oracle 8i). However, the most practical and applicable form is “synchronous,” and will therefore be the focus of this post.

RADIUS can authenticate against numerous sources including its own “users” flat file, LDAP directory services, Microsoft Active Directory, and others. RADIUS refers to “clients” and “NASs” (Network Access Servers, which broker the credentials). When authenticating against a RADIUS server, the Oracle Database acts as the “RADIUS client” and “NAS.”

From the Oracle Database “Database Licensing Information User Manual” (part number E94254-18 dated April 2020):

Network encryption (native network encryption, network data integrity, and SSL/TLS) and strong authentication services (Kerberos, PKI, and RADIUS) are no longer part of Oracle Advanced Security and are available in all licensed editions of all supported releases of Oracle Database.


However, to use RADIUS authentication, the Oracle client software must include the Advanced Security option. Therefore, a full client installation is required and the InstantClient is not sufficient. Verify Oracle client software compatibility using the adapters command.

Authentication Process

The process flow is relatively simple, yet important to understand:

  1. The Oracle client attempts to connect to the database and provides credentials (username and password) along with a 2FA TOTP code.
  2. Oracle Database receives this information, finds the user in the local catalog, and determines that the authentication type is EXTERNAL.
  3. Oracle Database then scans the SQLNET.ORA file to determine where to authenticate EXTERNAL users.
  4. Using the RADIUS connectivity information from the SQLNET.ORA file, the Oracle Database passes the credential details onto the RADIUS server.
  5. The RADIUS server first authenticates the username/password with a directory service which could be a local file, Active Directory, an LDAP service, etc. This is “Primary Authentication.”
  6. If validated, the RADIUS server then authenticates the TOTP with the multi-factor authentication service (for example, the Google Authenticator PAM module, Cisco Duo, etc). This is “Secondary Authentication.”
  7. If also validated, the RADIUS server passes back the “Access-Accept” response to the Oracle Database which then accepts and completes the connection.

Here’s an illustration of the process: