Oracle’s Database Security Assessment Tool (DBSAT) is a nice and powerful free tool that performs Database and OS Security Audits and provides recommendations based on the findings. The tool and documentation can be downloaded from the following Oracle link (although an account with CSI will be required for the download):
DBSAT has three components:
The Collector: Executes SQL queries and runs operating system commands to collect data from the system to be assessed.
- The Reporter: Analyzes the collected data and generates a Database Security Assessment Report in HTML, Excel, JSON and text formats. The Reporter can run on any machine: PC, laptop, or server (same or different than where the Collector ran).
- The Discoverer: Executes SQL queries and collects data from the system to be assessed, based on the settings specified in configuration files. The collected data is then used to generate a Database Sensitive Data Assessment Report in HTML and CSV formats. The Discoverer can run on any machine: PC, laptop, or server.
The scope of this blog is mainly to look at the third component, the Discoverer.
The Discoverer is a Java program and requires the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 1.8 (jdk8-u172) or later to run.
Also, JAVA_HOME needs to be set in the environment variables, otherwise you may face an error like:
Error: Java version 1.6 or later is required
During testing on my VM I had some issues even the Java version was correct:
Setting JAVA_HOME without the “java” folder resolved the problem:
[email protected]:~/DBSAT$ export JAVA_HOME=/usr
set JAVA_HOME=C:\Program Files\Java\jre1.8.0_141
The .config file needs to be edited to specify the connectivity. For example the Database Listener Port and Hostname, Schemas to be Audited or All and any tables or even specific columns to exclude from the scan. Example config file:
DB_HOSTNAME = localhost
DB_PORT = ####
SCHEMAS_SCOPE = ALL
You will see some default Sensitive Categories are provided. Your own customized can also be added:
PII = High Risk
PII - Address = High Risk
PII - IDs = High Risk
PII - IT Data = High Risk
PII-Linked = Medium Risk
PII-Linked - Birth Details = Medium Risk
Job Data = Medium Risk
Financial Data - PCI = High Risk
Financial Data - Banking = Medium Risk
Health Data = Medium Risk
The second file “sensitive_en.ini” has a number of predetermined patterns to search for. This way, the DBSAT Discoverer helps you to verify your sensitive data (especially for GDPR compliance), assuming of course your columns are properly named or at least properly documented. If your columns do not have human-readable names, but they have appropriate comments in the metadata, DBSAT Discoverer still will report them if they contain sensitive data. Also, you can add your own custom patterns for it to scan for if required. Example:
COL_NAME_PATTERN = (^LNAME$)|((LAST|FAMILY|SUR|PATERNAL).*NAME$)
COL_COMMENT_PATTERN = (Last|Family|Sur|Paternal).*Name
SENSITIVE_CATEGORY = PII
COL_NAME_PATTERN = STREET|^ST$|AVENUE|ROAD|ALLEY|BOULEVARD|PARKWAY|PLAZA|POINT|VALLEY
COL_COMMENT_PATTERN = Street.*(Address)?
SENSITIVE_CATEGORY = PII - Address
For those looking to audit and verify compliance with GDPR, DBSAT Discoverer can help. DBSAT reports are helpful for identifying tables containing personal and sensitive data which need to be protected, audited, masked, encrypted, etc.
A sample for running usage? See below:
./dbsat discover -c ./Discover/conf/Test12c_dbsat.config Test12c_dbsat_SensitiveData
The -c option is to point to our configuration file (sample_dbsat.config => Test12c_dbsat.config)
Also, by not including the -n parameter, the output report will be encrypted (which is recommended as this is all about sensitive data!).
The resulting Output Report is named “Test12c_dbsat_SensitiveData”, and the output file will be “dbsat_test12c_report.zip” which will contain .html and .csv versions of the report.
A couple of samples of findings on my test:
Note the default categories captured columns in my table named “Credit_Card”. I also added a customized category named “Custom2” to test. It captures specifically my column “Card_Number” (mostly to test that the additional categories and pattern matching added to the”Test12c_dbsat.config” file worked as expected).
Learn more about the DBSAT Tool here.
See the full DBSAT guide.